What is the use of the Electrical Control Panel in Industries?
The working power of an Industry lies in a metal box which contains a set of calculated Electrical Components and that combined know as an Electrical Control Panel. It is just like our body needs energy in order to control different functionality similarly, industrial process or Machinery needs a certain amount of Energy which are provided by this Electrical Control Panel.
These Electrical Panels are designed as per the Industrial Requirements. But before moving on to the calculation aspect we will study the types and components of the Electrical Control Panel.
Hence, an electrical control panel to control and monitor various mechanical functions of industrial equipment or machinery.
TYPES OF ELECTRICAL CONTROL PANEL
HT Panel means High Tension Panel. It works similarly to heart functions in our body. As the heart supplies blood to the other parts of our body for functioning similarly, the HT panel distributes high voltage power (11kv/ 22kv/33kv) to the LT panel for industrial functioning.
In simple words, we can say the HT panel is a metal enclosure fitted with HT Circuit Breakers, Relays, & Metering. HT panel receives electrical supply (11kv/22kv/33kv) from H- pole by 3 core HT cable and then it distributes power through one or more outgoing tributaries. These outgoing tributaries are correlated with distributors, transformers which convert HT supply into 415V, 3 phase 4 wire AC supply.
LT Panel means Low Tension Panel. LT panel is the second major electrical distribution board after the HT panel. LT panels are designed to function at a lower voltage (up to 690 volts) with low insulation levels. These are rated 430V, 3 phase 50HZ three or four-wire systems. LT Panel obtains the main power supply either from the Generator or Transformer ( i.e. HT panel) and distributes the same power to various electronic devices and distribution boards with the help of protective switch gears. LT panels are used for controlling and monitoring the main supply from a centralized location.
“LT panel works as a power distribution veins of a functioning electric body”
Sub LT Panels:
- PCC – Power Control Cubical Panel.
- MCC – Motor Control Cubical Panel
- APFC – Automation Power Correction Panel
- AMF – Auto Main Failure Panel
- DG Synchronisation Panel
- Automation Panel
Major Components for Electrical Control Panel
An MCB is an automatically operated electrical switch. Miniature Circuit Breakers are designed to safeguard an electrical circuit from damage caused by the surplus current, typically resulting from an overload or short circuit. Its current rating is about up to 63 Amps. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected (interrupting capacity is about up to 10 KA) A circuit breaker can be reset to resume normal operation unlike, a fuse that operates once and then must be replaced either manually or automatically.
A Moulded Case Circuit breaker is an electrical protection device. MCCB is used to protect the electrical circuit from excessive current, which can cause overload or short circuit with a current rating of up to 2500A, MCCBs can be used for an ample range of voltages and frequencies for commercial and industrial purposes with adjustable trip settings.
The MCCB uses a temperature-sensitive device with a current sensitive electromagnetic device to provide the trip mechanism for protection and solitude purposes. This enables the MCCB to provide
- Protection against overload
- Electrical fault protection against short circuit currents
- An electrical switch for disconnection
Motor Protection Circuit Breaker. MPCB is a specialized type of electrical protection device that is designed specifically for electric motors. It contains thermal overload protection, short circuit fault protection, unbalance load, and phase loss fault protection. The reliability of the MPCB is greater than MCCB or fuse. Typically, MPCB> MCCB Fuse.
Max MPCB current range in Amps = 1.6 × 1000 × P(kw) / (1.732* volts* pf)
Air Circuit Breaker is an electrical device. ACB provides protection against overcurrent and short circuits for electric circuits over 800 Amps to 10k Amps. ACB is used in low voltage applications below 450V. The ACB operates at atmospheric pressure in the air. ACB is used in the switching mechanism and protection of the electrical system. It opens or closes a circuit automatically or manually.